Nope. On the rare occasions you’re referring to somone with the title, it goes with the first name: Sir Paul. Otherwise ‘sir’ is a standalone without any name attached.
A monument is a structure erected in remembrance of a person or event. They’re often on a grand scale, which is why “monumental” simply means extremely large.
Where sentences don’t start with a capital for some reason, there’s no need to propagate the need for one until you find somewhere to put it.
People are naturally very proud of their academic achievements and titles and want them stated in their communications. But it’s not as trivial as it might seem.
Singular subjects require singular verbs and plural subjects require plural verbs… except when they don’t.
A singular noun. Yes, the origin of the word is the Latin plural of datum, but that’s not the point. Languages are dynamic and changing; if you don’t go with the flow, it can sound hypercorrect.
American spelling uses -ize; British spelling uses either -ize or -ise and may vary from one publication to the next. But be consistent!